Halakha - Kashrut

Pyrex & Microwave §

  • Need to understand what the deal with this wrapping it thing is. It seems like the wrapping should be unnecessary (does Noten Ta’am Bar Ta’am apply here?)

No such thing as non-Kasher Sink §

  • I should have the MT and S”A sources somewhere
    • If not, go through Shiviti

Vegan Restaurants and Bishul Nokhri §

  • What determines “fit to eat at a King’s table”?
    • Make a short list
  • Does it make sense to be meqil or le7umra with foods
  • Probably the one from the UTJ site is gonna end up being what I agree with?

Gerim’s Kelim Don’t Require Tevillah §

  • Peninei Halakha from the Arutz Sheva site
    • I c/p’d it into the Going Kosher group

Foods Requiring Hekhsher/Hashgaha §

Pat Akum §

  • Bread - needs to be baked by a Jew, unless there is no Jewish Baker in the area, or in a field. Then it can be bought from a non-Jew
    • There’s some syntactic ambiguity in the Talmudh and in MT. I’m following the MM Hebrew and treating it as two separate conditions, rather than one
  • It’s long been the minhag that this means “buying from a bakery or storefront where it’s kasher is fine. Eating at ppl’s homes is not”
    • Find Shiviti threads on this

Bittul beShishim §

אין מבטלין איסור לכתחלה ואפילו נפל לתוך היתר שאין בו שיעור לבטלו אין מוסיפין עליו הית’ כדי לבטלו עבר וביטלו או שריבה עליו אם בשוגג מותר ואם במזיד אסור למבטל עצמו אם הוא שלו וכן למי שנתבטל בשבילו (ואסורים למכרו גם כן לישראל אחר שלא יהנו ממה שבטלו) (ארוך כלל כ”ד) ולשאר כל אדם מותר: הגה ודוקא שנתערב יבש ביבש או אפילו לח בלח למאן דאמר שאין אומרים בו חתיכה נעשית נבלה כדלעיל סי’ צ”ב אבל חתיכה שבלעה איסור לא מהני שנתוסף אחר כך ההיתר דהא אמרינן ביה חתיכה נעשית נבילה (רשב”א סי’ תצ”ה ועי’ ס”ק י”ד) ויש אומרים דאפילו במקום דלא אמרינן חתיכה נעשית נבילה לא מהני ההיתר לבטל אלא אם נתוסף קודם שנודע התערובת אבל אם נודע התערובת קודם לא מהני מה שנתוסף אחר כך ולפי זה היה צריך החכם המורה לבטל איסור לחקור אם נתוסף ההיתר לאחר שנודע (ארוך כלל ל”ז) ולא נהגו כן:

We may not intentionally nullify a prohibited food item. Even in a case where the prohibited item falls into a mix where there is not quite enough to nullify it - we may not add additional permitted food in order to nullify it. If someone violated this and did, in fact, nullify it, or added to the permitted material: if they did so unintentionally, the food is now permitted. But if they did so intentionally, the food is prohibited to themselves, and to those for whom they may have nullified it, but is permitted to others (Remah: it is also prohibited to sell it to another Jew, lest one derive benefit from having improperly nullified the food).

Shulchan_Arukh, Yoreh De’ah 99:5

Kelim §

Dishwashers §

  • Washing dairy and meat dishes & utensils at the same time is mutar.
    • With the possible exception of Pesa7 [cit needed], there is absolutely no need to kasher dishwashers past the initial kashering process
    • This applies to the Starbucks “controversy”
  • Dishwashers at Stabrucks are Not An Issue

Separate Dishes §

Microwaves §

Plastic §

Eating Out - Restaurants §

Waiting Between Meat and Dairy §

Between Dairy and Meat §

  • Dairy requires either: 1 hr wait OR the following formula:
    • Separation + Eat something Parve that doesn’t stick+ Rinse Mouth + Say Berakha Aharona for Dairy
    • Technically even without all that it’s ok. Find Talmudic passage about this.
  • Hard Cheese 6 hrs (same wait time as Meat)

Between Meat and Dairy §

  • 3 hrs btwn meat & dairy - that’s the Dutch custom, iirc
    • MT says 6 hrs - though the time seems to be a “should” - i.e. לא יאכל - rather than אסור דווקה - MT Ma’Akhaloth Asuroth 9:28
      • Requires further looking into. Ask in Not My Minhag

Noten Ta’am §

Nat bar Nat §

  • Find other sources on this. Joey Mosseri vid, as well as MT and/or S”A and etzion.org article? Also Yonatan Halevy’s summary in Shiviti was excellent!!


[כג] פַּת שֶׁאֲפָיָהּ עִם הַצֳּלִי, וְדָגִים שֶׁצְּלָיָן עִם הַבָּשָׂר–אָסוּר לְאָכְלָן בְּחָלָב.

כג קְעָרָה שֶׁאָכְלוּ בָּהּ בָּשָׂר, וּבִשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ דָּגִים–אוֹתָן הַדָּגִים, מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן בְּכֻתָּח.

Sources and Footnotes §

Gelatin §

In food products, it’s generally added intentionally - for the benefit of Ta`am (or for holding the food together)- and thus, bediavad and bittul don’t apply. See MT 4:18 & 4:21

Pat Akum (Goyim) §

מ”ת מאכלות אסורות יז:יב

Hebrew from Mechone Mamre

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסְרוּ פַּת גּוֹיִים, יֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמְּקִילִין בַּדָּבָר וְלוֹקְחִין פַּת מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹם הַגּוֹי, בִּמְקוֹם שְׁאֵין שָׁם נַחְתּוֹם יִשְׂרָאֵל; וּבַשָּׂדֶה, מִפְּנֵי שְׁהִיא שָׁעַת הַדֹּחַק. אֲבָל פַּת בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים, אֵין שָׁם מִי שֶׁמּוֹרֶה בָּהּ לְהָקֶל: שֶׁעִיקַר הַגְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוֹם חַתְנוּת; וְאִם יֹאכַל פַּת בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים, יָבוֹא לִסְעֹד אֶצְלָן

Even though they [the Sages] prohibited Gentile bread, there are cases where we are lenient and we take bread from a Gentile baker where there is no Jewish baker, and in the field, for it is a time of pressing need. But bread made by ordinary folk, there is nobody who permits it; for the primary purpose of the decree is from intermarriage, and if he eats the bread of ordinary folk, he will end up eating with them.

תלמוד בבלי עבודה זרה לה: יט

א”ר חלבו אפילו למ”ד פלטר עובד כוכבים לא אמרן אלא דליכא פלטר ישראל אבל במקום דאיכא פלטר ישראל לא ורבי יוחנן אמר אפי’ למ”ד פלטר עובד כוכבים ה”מ בשדה אבל בעיר לא משום חתנות The Gemara cites two qualifications of the leniency that people inferred from the above incident. Rabbi Ḥelbo said: Even according to the one who thought to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to a gentile baker, we said that the bread is permitted only where there is no Jewish baker, but in a place where there is a Jewish baker, the leniency would certainly not apply. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even according to the one who thought to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to a gentile baker, that statement applies only in the field, but in the city it would not apply, and the bread would still be prohibited due to the possibility of marriage with a gentile.

Note: “in the fields” refers to non-social settings - see R’ Joshua Kulp’s commentary:


The sugya begins with R. Yohanan noting that bread was not permitted by the “court,” which seems to be some sort of official court composed of the sages. The implication is that there were others who did permit bread made by Gentiles. And indeed, the Talmud shows that some people mistakenly thought that Rabbi [Judah Hanasi] permitted bread made by Gentiles.In reality, Rabbi only wanted to permit bread “in the field,” meaning in a non-social situation. Eating Gentile bread was prohibited because it leads to fraternization (breaking bread with someone is a sign of socializing), and in the field there is no such concern. But Rabbi did not mean to permit such bread under all circumstances.

Waiting Between Meat and Dairy §

מ”ת מאכלות אסורות ט:כח:

מִי שֶׁאָכַל בָּשָׂר בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה בֵּין בְּשַׂר עוֹף לֹא יֹאכַל אַחֲרָיו חָלָב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר סְעֵדָּה אַחֶרֶת וְהוּא כְּמוֹ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת מִפְּנֵי הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁל בֵּין הַשִּׁנַּיִם שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָר בְּקִנּוּחַ:

If one has eaten meat first, whether the meat of cattle or fowl, he should not partake of milk thereafter until a lapse of time is spent, equal to the interval between two meals, namely about six hours, because the fragments of meat between the teeth are not removed by cleansing.

חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֵינוֹ נִקְפֶּה וְעוֹמֵד כַּחֲלֵב הַטְּהוֹרָה. וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב חֲלֵב טְמֵאָה בַּחֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה כְּשֶׁתַּעֲמִיד אוֹתוֹ יַעֲמוֹד חֲלֵב הַטְּהוֹרָה וְיֵצֵא חֲלֵב הַטֻּמְאָה עִם הַקּוֹם שֶׁל גְּבִינָה:

All Cheese Requires a Hekhsher §

מ”ת מאכולות אסורות ג:יג

The milk of a non-kosher animal will not coagulate and form into cheese like the milk of a kosher animal. If milk of a non-kosher animal were mixed with that of a kosher animal, when it coagulates into cheese, the non-kosher milk with its whey will flow out of the cheese.

וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה יִתֵּן הַדִּין שֶׁכָּל חָלָב הַנִּמְצָא בְּיַד עַכּוּ’‘ם אָסוּר שֶׁמָּא עֵרֵב בּוֹ חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה. וּגְבִינַת הָעַכּוּ’‘ם מֻתֶּרֶת שֶׁאֵין חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה מִתְגַּבֵּן. אֲבָל בִּימֵי חַכְמֵי מִשְׁנָה גָּזְרוּ עַל גְּבִינַת הָעַכּוּ’‘ם וַאֲסָרוּם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אוֹתָהּ בְּעוֹר קֵבָה שֶׁל שְׁחִיטָתָן שֶׁהִיא נְבֵלָה. וְאִם תֹּאמַר וַהֲלֹא עוֹר הַקֵּבָה דָּבָר קָטָן הוּא עַד מְאֹד בֶּחָלָב שֶׁעָמַד בּוֹ וְלָמָּה לֹא יִבָּטֵל בְּמִעוּטוֹ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא הַמַּעֲמִיד הַגְּבִינָה. וְהוֹאִיל וְדָבָר הָאָסוּר הוּא שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד הֲרֵי הַכּל אָסוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

It therefore is logical that any milk owned by a non-Jew is prohibited, lest they have mixed in the milk of a non-kosher animal. Cheese produced by a non-Jew is permitted, since milk of a non-kosher animal cannot become cheese. However, in the days of the sages, they decreed that cheese produced by a non-Jew be prohibited, lest they coagulate it using the non-kosher stomach lining of animals they slaughter. And if you will say - the stomach-lining is negligible in relation in the amount of milk; should it not be considered nullified? Since it is the very thing which creates the cheese, and if the thing which creates the cheese is prohibited, the whole thing is prohibited, as will be explained.

Halav Stam & Halav Yisrael §

Rachmiel Travitz - Watched vs. Unwatched Halav Yisrael: Fixing the Record https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwdeLfzh6_4

Historical Note: US Orthodox Jews were eating “Halav haCompanies”:

“It is not quite correct for everyone to be quoting Rav Moshe, as though the permissibility of drinking USFDA milk originated with his responsa on the subject. Rather, most American Jews were drinking what he called chalav hacompanies well before RMF arrived in the US. They had rabbanim who had already ruled it was permissible, such as R’ Dov Revel, R’ Yisrael Avraham Abba Krieger, (among other greats of early 20th century American Judaism whom time has forgotten because the post-War immigrants never met them) R’ Breuer, R’ Moshe Soloveitchik and his son R’ JB Soloveitchik. In the early days of Lakewoodthey served regular milk and Breakstone cottage cheese. Yes, that stopped when CY became more readily available, but obviously the yeshiva wouldn’t have served it had R’ Aharon Kotler believed CY was mandatory. (They could have sent someone to a nearby farm – Lakewood was near farmland back then.)

Then there were those who didn’t permit USFDA inspected milk. Those who immigrated in that same post-war wave were therefore confused which to do. RMF sided with those who permit, giving the version of the justification he found valid. But the leniency doesn’t entirely rest on his shoulders.

Also, it’s clear Rav Moshe’s language shifted as chalav Yisrael (CY) became more available, in the earliest responsum treating CY as a stringency above the baseline (Irgros Moshe YD 1:47-49), the middle more equivocal (2:31,35) and the latest (4:5) more like not insisting on CY being a leniency. However, Rebbetzin Feinstein did not observe chalav yisrael, and it is well known in their community that Rav Dovid Feinstein to this day drinks what his father zt”l labeled “chalav ha-companies” (company milk, USFDA approved). So I wouldn’t read that much into the change in language, if it didn’t impact what he told his own family! In practice, he treated CY as a personal stringency, even to his last day.”

-Source (with more elaboration): Mi Yodea - Chalav Yisrael milk: stringency or binding


Not unless we know that problematic ingredients are present. Contrary to the current Kashrut establishments teachings, “what if” is not a valid factor in a Halachic equation.

Dishwashers and Starbucks §

relevant quote from the first thread:

“Any taam of the residue on the knife is lifgam, due to soap. Any taam passed in the washing liquid is lifgam, but none passes, all items are stainless, and the rinse does its job. Go look at the knives after they are washed.

Also, cold drinks are prepared cold. Cold brew coffee isn’t even heated at any point! What made up kashrut nonsense even is this!

People can buy coffee from any taref restaurant, starbucks is no different because “all of a sudden” they stopped giving whatever info star k wanted?”

See http://www.kosherstarbucks.com/faq - based on Rav Abadi’s rulings